Konsep Makk?yah dan Madan?yah dalam Studi Had?th: Menggagas Pemetaan Kronologis Had?th Nabaw?
The Qur??nic Studies have long recognized the conceptual dichotomy of Makk?yah and Madaniyah where verses are classified as either belonging to the period of Makkah or Madinah. This paper suggests that this conceptual dichotomy may also be applied in the study of the science of the prophetic saying (had?th). We propose that paradigm of the Qur??nic Studies concerning the periodical distinction may be borrowed to understand and classify the prophetic sayings along the line of Makk?yah and Madan?yah. The paper however acknowledges this effort is not without methodological difficulties. There are had?th that may ?in terms of their characteristics and substance- be regarded as Makk?, but may also be considered as Madani because they are narrated by the people of Madinah (the Ans?r). To tackle this problem, we propose double-way strategy. We will first find out which had?ths are regarded as Makk? in terms of their characteristics and substance, and then examine the idea of what many have called the ?argumentation of the prophetic term?. The first is about the thematic study, while the second is about the analysis of the term of a had?th. The first will involve the consultation of mainly the had?th authoritative book called Mift?h Kun?z al-Sunnah, while the second will consult those books that employ the personal-encyclopedic approach including books of had?th, the sciences of the Qur??n (tafs?r), the reason of revelation (asb?b al-nuz?l), the reason of decreeing (asb?b al-wur?d), and the autobiography of the prophet (s?rah). The meaning of a had?th and its appropriation in these books will be analyzed in the light of the science of had?th. The paper will examine how different scientists of tafsir, had?th and so on would understand and interpret the same had?th.