Memetakan Anatomi Diskursus Islamisme dan Terorisme Islam
Abstract: What is the main factor of terrorism; Islamic doctrine, or political factor? There are three mainstream opinions provide theoretical reviews. Firstly, those who believe that the justification of acts of violence to terrorism is an inherent product of religious doctrine. Secondly, those who consider that terrorism is a profane matter have absolutely nothing to do with religion. Thirdly, the opinion which states that terrorism is syncretism and interrelated modification between politics and religion. This article tries to examine the three views above by dissecting other perspectives in order to get a clearer picture of the discourse of Islamism transforming into a radical movement leading to terrorism. Doctrinal and political motives are so strongly integrated and overlapping in the structure of the motives and actions of these radical groups. Departing from the view that Islamism is a movement that aims to make radical-revolutionary changes in social structure institutions, this article collects theories that can be used as maps to understand the construction of Islamism.
Ahmed, Akbar S. Post-Modernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Ali, Ayan Hirsi. “Islam is Religion of Violence”, Foreign Affairs, 9 November 2015.
Anderson, Christina. “Stockholm Truck Attack Kills 4; Terrorism is Suspected”, The New York Times, 7 April 2017.
Arnett, George. “Religious Extremism Main Cause of Terrorism, According to Report”, The Guardian, 18 November 2014.
Azra, Azyumardi. Pergolakan Politik Islam dari Fundamentalisme, Modernisme hingga Posmodernisme. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1996.
Bayat, Asef. “Islamism and Social Movement Theory”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2005.
Berman, Paul. Terror and Liberalism. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Binder, Leonard. Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Bombing. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.
Bukay, David. “The Religious Foundatios of Suicide Bombings”, The Middle east Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2006.
Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
Chalik, Abdul. “Funadamentalisme dan Masa Depan Ideologi Politik Islam”, Islamica, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2014.
Cliteur, Paul. “Why Religious Terrorism is Really Religious”, Church and State, 2015. Diakses dari laman http://churchandstate.org.uk/2017/01/why-religious-terrorism-is-really-religious/, 13 April 2017.
Cordesman, Anthony H. “Broad Patterns in Global Terrorism 2014”, Center for Strategic & International Studies, 19 Juni 2015.
Crone, Patricia. “Jihad: Idea and History”, Open Democracy, 1 Mei 2007.
Dearden, Lizziee. “Sweden Teror Attack”, Independent, 7 April 2017.
El Fadl, Khaled Abou. The great Theft, Wrestling Islam from the Extremist. San Fransisco: Harper, 2005.
Esposito, John L, & Mogahed, Dalia. Who Speak for Islam?: What a Billion of Muslims really Think. New York: Gallup Press, 2007.
Esposito, John L. “Religion and political a?airs: political challenges”, SAIS Review: A Journal for International affairs. Vol. 18, No. 2, 1998.
_____. Islamic Threat: Myth or Realitiy? Third Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Feffer, John. “Trump v. Islam”, Foreign Policy in Focus, 21 Februari 2017.
Fine, Jonathan. “Contrasting Religious and Sekuler Terrorism”, The Middle East Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2008.
Flowers, Andrew. “Global Terrorism Declined Last Year–But not in the West”, FiveThirtyEight, 30 Juni 2016.
Foucault, Michel. ‘An interview with Michele Foucault”, Akhtar, No. 4, 1987.
Gellner, Ernest. Post-Modernism, Reason and Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
Gibson, David. “Does religion Cause Terrorism? It’s Complicated”, The Huffington Post, 31 Agustus 2011. Diakses dari laman http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/ 31/religion-terrorism_n_944143.html, 17 April 2017.
Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Society. California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
Gregg, Heather S. “Defining and Distinguishing Sekuler and Religious Terrorism”, Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2014.
Guiora, Amos N. Freedom From Religion: Rights and National Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Gunning, Jeroen, & Jackson, Richard. “What’s so ‘Religious’ about ‘Religious’ Terrorism”, Critical Studies on Terorrism, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2011.
Hanafi, Hassan, & al-J?bir?, M.‘?bid. Hiw?r al-Masyriq wa al-Maghrib. Beirut: Muassasah al-Arabiyyah, 1990.
Hanafi, Hassan. Aku Bagian dari Fundamentalisme Islam. Yogyakarta: Islamika, 2003.
Hirschkind, Charles. “What is Political Islam?”, Middle East Report, No. 205, 1997.
Hoffman, Bruce. “Holy Terror: The Implications of Terrorism Motivated by a Religious Imperative”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1995.
Huntington, Samuel P. “The Clash of Civilizations?”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1993.
Huntington, Samuel P. “The Age Muslim Wars”, Newsweek (Special Edition), Desember 2001-Februari 2002.
Institute for Economic and Peace. Global Terrorism Index 2016. Maryland: University of Maryland, 2016.
Jackson, Richard. “Constructing Enemies: ‘Islamic Terrorism’ in Political and Academic Discourse”, Government and Opposition, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2007.
Jones, James W. Jones. Blood That Cries Out From the Earth: The Psychology of Religious Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. Teror Atas Nama Tuhan: Kebangkitan Global kekerasan Agama. Jakarta: Nizam Press & Anima Publishing, 2002.
_____. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Kasdi, Abdurrahman. ”Fundamentalisme Islam Timur Tengah: Akar Teologi, Kritik Wacana dan Politisasi Agama”, Tashwirul Afkar, No. 13, 2004.
Keddie. “New Religious Politics: Where, When and Why Fundamentalism Appear?”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1998.
Laqueur, Walter. The Age of Terrorism. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1987.
Le Bon, Gustav. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. New York: Viking, 1960.
Lewis, B. et. al. The Encyclopaedia of Islam: New Edition. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990.
Lewis, Bernard. “Roots of Muslim Rage”, Atlantic Monthly, September 1990.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Roots of Muslim Rage”, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 266, No. 3, 1990.
Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong. London: Phoenix, 2002.
Melucci, Alberto. Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Miller, Erin dkk. Global Terrorism Database 2015. Maryland: START, 2016.
Omar, manal. “Islam is the Religion of Peace”, Foreign Affairs, 9 November 2015.
Pape, Robert. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. New York: Random House, 2005.
Rapoport, David C. “Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions”, American Political Science Review, Vol. 78, No. 3, 1984.
Riesebrodt, M. Pious Passion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
Rosdiawan, Ridwan, dan Atmaja, Dwi Surya. Islamic Terrorism: The Ambiguity between Accusation and Justification. Pontianak: IAIN Pontianak Press, 2016.
Sagiv, David. Islam: Otentisitas Liberalisme, terj. Yudian W. Asmin. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 1997.
Sedgwick, Mark. “Al-Qaeda and the Nature of Religious Terrorism”, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2004.
Silvan, Emmanuel. Radical Islam, Medieval Theology and Modern Politic. New Haven: Yale University, Press, 1990.
Smelser, Niel. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press, 1963.
Stern, Jessica Stern. Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins, 2009.
Susanto, Edi. “Kemungkinan Munculnya Paham Islam Radikal di Pesantren”, Tadris, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007.
The White House Office of Presidential Secretary. “Executive Order: Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States”, The White House, 27 January 2017.
Tilly, Charles. From Mobilization to Revolution. London: Addison-Wesley,1978.
Touraine, A. The Return of the Actor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988.
Tucker, David. “What is New about the New Terrorism and How Dangerous is It?”, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2001.
Turner, R, L. Killian. Collective Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987.
Yaqub, Ali Mustafa. “Radikalisme dan Metode Memahami Teks Agama”, Makalah Seminar Nasional Islam dan Terrorisme, 2006.
Zald, Meyer, & McCarthy, D. Social Movements in an Organizational Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1987.
Copyright (c) 2018 Ridwan Rosdiawan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.