Konsep Being Perspektif Filsafat dan Islam
This article discuss the concept of being in the perspective of existentialism and Islam. The closest similarity to the word “being” is to on (Ancient Greece), as the word of einai, to be (on, onta). For Parmenides, “being” (to on) is one, eternal and unchanging. Gabriel Marcel calls the way the human being with the term être-au-monde, etre in carne, geist-in-welt. Martin Heidegger uses a formula being in the world to characterize human life. Being in the world as a feature of human life, human beings are in the situation. Living in a world of concrete means that there are human relationships with the situation. Sartre said that the real one where there are two, namely: I’etre en soi and I’etre pour Soi. For Sartre, I’etre en soi is the idea that only a concrete phenomenon has ontological status; only something concrete is real. Unlike the being-in-itself, for Sartre the concept of being-for-itself is a state of being that comes with the awareness and self-control. The concept of being (wujûd) by Suhrawardî is a mental concepts (mahfûm) that do not have the type and diferensia. In the illumination philosophy of Suhrawardî, the idea of wujûd can not be separated from nature and depiction of light. The philosophy of wujûd by Mulla Sadrâ stands on three basic principles of fundamental importance. These three principles are as follows: wahdat al-wujûd, tashkîk al-wujûd, and tashkîk. While Mohammad Iqbal emphasis on metaphysics and anthropological philosophy. Iqbal gives greater emphasis on more concrete dimensions, namely khudi (ego).
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