Pemikiran Teologis Abû Ḥanîfah tentang Irjâ‘ dan Shafâ‘at
This article deals with the theological thought of Abû Ḥanîfah on the concepts of irjâ‘ and shafâ‘ah. On the concept of irjâ‘, Abû Ḥanîfah fully returns the legitimacy of ‘Uthmân b. ‘Affân as the third caliph and the superiority of ‘Alî b. Abî Ṭâlib merely to the authority of Allah. This concept rejects the Khariji doctrine on the expulsion of the wrong doers (sinful people) from the Muslim community, a rejection which implies that ‘Uthmân is a legally accepted caliph. This concept also rejects the early Shî‘i doctrine on the superiority of ‘Alî, and ranks al-Khulafâ’ al-Râshidûn (the rightly guided caliphs) in accordance with their advantages and historical chronology. On the concept of shafâ‘ah, Abû Ḥanîfah believes it as something that will happen on the Day of Judgment. The followers of the Prophet Muhammad must fulfill twelve requirements if they wish to receive shafâ‘ah from the Prophet. To Abû Ḥanîfah, the Prophet’s shafâ‘ah is certain for every Muslim although he/she committed great sin during his/her life except shirk bi Allâh.